Viral infection is the process that the virus invades the host through a variety of ways and proliferates in susceptible host cells. First, sufficient numbers of virions must enter the host. Those cells must be susceptible to infection. The host cells express the receptors that viruses can bind. Then viruses can reproduce themselves by taking over the biosynthetic machinery of the host cells and exploiting it for their purposes. Eventually, virus dissemination spreads from the site of infection to other sites within a host. Viral infection leads almost invariably to some adverse reaction within the host, such as fever or malignant disease.
A transmission in the virus, host, and environment is necessary to establish infection. The virus needs to enter a host to initiate a successful infection in the end. There are several different portals of entry to host cells as follows.Fig1 Common portals of virus entry. (Payne, 2017)
The virus transmission includes vertical and horizontal transmission.
Fig2 Horizontal transmission versus vertical transmission. (Payne, 2017)
Virions spread to other organs in one of two ways. In the hematogenous spread, viruses spread to target organs using the bloodstream. This can occur through direct injection into the blood or entering the interstitial fluid that virions eventually return to the bloodstream. Since blood circulates throughout the entire body, viruses can use the bloodstream to gain access to their cellular targets in organs other than the ones through which they entered the body. In the neurotropic spread, viruses spread through the body using neurons. Viruses replicate in cells at the local site of infection and then infect neurons located nearby. Viral infection causes devastating results if they reach the central nervous system.
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