Fig.1 Schematic overview of the Mumps virus genome.
Fig.2 Schematic overview of the Mumps virus life cycle.
The Mumps virus (MuV), also known as Mumps orthorubulavirus or Mumps rubulavirus, is a causative agent belonging to the genus of Orthorubulavirus and the family of Paramyxoviridae. MuV is the main cause of mumps infections, a highly contagious viral infection that affects the salivary glands and involves other tissues leading to a wide range of inflammatory reactions.
The mumps has been known to humans for a long time, but MuV and its contagiousness have not been identified until in 1934 by Johnson and Goodpasture. MuV is transmitted and spread only among humans by direct contact or respiratory droplets. The mumps infection has broken out several times over the past decades, especially in children. The immune memory of the human immune system against mumps is life-long, and once infected, it may be re-infected, but subsequent infections are mild. Therefore, the advent of mumps vaccine has dramatically decreased the probability of mumps infection.
MuV is an enveloped virus with a 100-600 nm irregular spherical shape and an un-segmented RNA genome inside. The irregular spherical shell of MuV particles envelope is a tri-layered envelope. The glycoproteins possessing hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and cell fusion activity are distributed in the outer layer of the tri-layered envelope; a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell when the virus germinates from the cytoplasmic membrane forms the middle layer; a non-glycosylated membrane protein fills the innermost layer of the envelope to maintain the external structure of the virus. In general, MuV mainly contains 7 structural proteins: fusion protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, small hydrophobic protein, a high-molecular-weight protein (L protein), and nucleocapsid protein.
The genome of MuV is single-stranded linear RNA with 15,384 nucleotides. This negative-sense RNA coated by nucleocapsid proteins, together with nucleoprotein, poly-phosphoprotein, and L protein, form the helical ribonucleoprotein complex. According to the proteins it encodes, MuV genome is divided into the following regions:
MuV specific antibodies can be detected in serum about 1 week after infections. Also, MuV therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can be used for the neutralization of virus particles. Here, Creative Biolabs provides well-characterized ready-to-use anti-MuV monoclonal antibodies for your diagnostic and therapeutic research needs. It is noted that our MuV antibody products are only for various research, not for clinical applications. You can directly contact us for more details about MuV antibody products and services, including ViroAntibody discovery, ViroAntibody engineering, ViroAntibody customized and ViroAntibody neutralization assays.