Fig.1 Genome organization of EV.
Fig.2 Schematic overview of the enterovirus life cycle.
Enterovirus (EV) is a common human pathogen. The infection caused by EV is very common and highly infectious. It is estimated that more than 1 billion people are infected every year in the world. In the United States, 30,000 to 50,000 people are hospitalized each year due to EV infection. The routes of EV infection include: oral-oral, oral-fecal, direct contact with skin fluid, and perinatal period from mother to baby. Diseases caused by EVs include paralytic poliomyelitis, non-polio enterovirus infection and aseptic meningitis. Creative Biolabs offers high quality anti-Enterovirus antibodies to our customers.
EVs belong to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. The original taxonomic classification of EVs was initially based on disease manifestations in human and animal models, but later on replication patterns and physical and chemical characteristics in cell culture. According to this scheme, five species of this genus can be identified by traditional classification: polioviruses, group A coxsackieviruses, group B coxsackieviruses, EVs, and numbered EVs.
Fig.3 Illustration of EV.
With the advent of molecular virology, the classification is now based on phylogenetic analysis of the nucleic acid sequence of the major enterovirus capsid protein VP1. In recent years, several non-polio EVs (NPEVs) have become a serious public health threat. These include EV-A71, which has caused a pandemic of hand-foot-and-mouth disease related to neurological complications in Southeast Asia, occasionally leading to death. The other is EV-D68, which recently caused a large outbreak of severe lower respiratory disease in North America, but also related to acute flaccid paralysis.
EVs are small (30 nm in diameter), icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive RNA viruses. The viral capsid is composed of four viral proteins (VP1 to VP4). EVs have a sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 7.4 kilobases. The 5' end of the genome is covalently linked to a small protein VPg. The genome is organized into a long (approximately 740 nucleotides) 5' non-coding region, which is located before a single continuous open reading frame (approximately 6630 nucleotides). The open reading frame, followed by a short 3' non-coding region and a terminal polyadenylation tail, is produced a large polyprotein that is post-translationally modified to produce four capsid proteins and seven non-structural proteins.
Anti-EV antibodies can be used in the study of infectious diseases. Creative Biolabs provides a large number of EV antibodies for hot targets to meet the needs of customers. All products are for research purposes only and are not approved for human or clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. For special EV antibodies, our expert team has the ability to provide comprehensive services for specific project needs, including ViroAntibody discovery, ViroAntibody engineering, ViroAntibody customized and ViroAntibody neutralization assays services. If you are interested in our anti-EV antibody products or services, please feel free to contact us for more details.