Fig.1 Virion structure of RVFV. (Calvo-Pinilla, et al., 2020)
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus that primarily affects domestic ruminants and humans. It is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus was first isolated from sheep in 1930. RVFV infection in animals causes severe illness, including fetal malformations, birth defects, and a high rate of abortion and mortality. Human infections are typically characterized by self-limiting febrile illness, but a few affected individuals may experience much more severe symptoms such as eye disease, hemorrhage, and encephalitis.
RVFV viral particles are enveloped, roughly spherical, and heterogeneous in size, measuring 80-120nm on average. The envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer with Gn and Gc glycoproteins forming surface subunits that are 5-8 nm in length and are regularly arranged on its surface. The virus surface is covered with 122 Gn/Gc forming capsomers arranged on a 12-triangulation icosahedral lattice. The virus has a negative-stranded RNA genome that is divided into three segments: small (S), medium (M), and large (L). The L segment is in charge of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase formation. At least four different proteins are encoded by the M-segment (i.e., two accessory proteins: 78-kD and NSm; two envelope glycoproteins: Gn and Gc). The S segment contains two ORFs that code for the nucleoprotein (N) and the non-structural NSs protein, respectively.
Fig.2 RVFV genome organization. (Fawzy & Helmy, 2019)
|S||N||Viral RNA synthesis and packaging viral RNA into virions|
|NS||Major virulence factor to antagonize host innate immune responses|
|M||Gn||Viral envelope proteins; Viral entry into the host cell|
|Gc||Viral envelope proteins; Viral fusion|
|L||L||RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, transcription of genes, and replication of the viral genome|
Table 1 RVFV proteins and their functions.
RVFV infections have been identified using virus or viral antigen, antibody, or RNA identification. RVF must be diagnosed definitively through laboratory testing of blood or tissue samples. RVFV detection methods include virus isolation, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a dependable and sensitive test for detecting RVFV by detecting IgM antibodies.
To meet the needs of our clients, Creative Biolabs provides a variety of viroantibodies. We have high-quality RVFV antibodies for a variety of applications and species, as well as conjugated and unconjugated forms. Please send us your specific RVFV antibody inquiry, and we will respond as soon as possible. The ready-to-use catalog is not available for all targets; please consult with our scientists for antibody discovery, engineering, and customized services. Please feel free to contact us for more details.
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