Fig.1 Virion structure of RSV. (Jung, et al., 2020)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, was first identified in 1956 in a group of chimps and was dubbed "chimp coryza agent" at the time. It has since been recognized as one of the most common causes of childhood illness. RSV is a common viral pathogen that infects nearly all children under the age of two. The clinical manifestations of RSV range from mild upper respiratory infections to severe LRTI, primarily bronchiolitis and pneumonia. RSV is responsible for 60,000 in-hospital deaths in children under the age of five worldwide each year.
RSV is a negative sense, filamentous enveloped, 15.2 kb RNA virus. The viral genome contains ten genes that code for nine structural and two non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, N, P, M, SH, G, F, M2-1, M2-2, and L).
Fig.2 The filamentous morphology of the virion. (Battles & McLellan,2019)
The receptor attachment glycoprotein (G), the fusion protein (F), and a short hydrophobic (SH) protein are all integral membrane proteins in RSV. G and F viral glycoproteins are involved in virus-host cell attachment and fusion. The SH protein forms a pentameric ion channel that is thought to be involved in apoptosis delay in infected cells. The matrix protein (M) creates a protein layer beneath the viral envelope that surrounds the nucleocapsid and interacts with the viral membrane. Only three viral proteins are required for RSV genome replication: the nucleoprotein (N), the large protein (L), and the phosphoprotein (P). The M2 gene codes for two proteins: M2-1, a transcription elongation factor, and M2-2, a viral transcription regulator. M2-2 controls transcription and RNA replication.
RSV has two distinct nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2. The NS-1 and NS-2 proteins are thought to be involved in the inhibition of IFN release from infected cells. They promote RSV replication by interfering with type I IFN signaling in the host.
|F||Viral fusion and syncytium formation|
|SH||Ion channel; improving virus infection|
|L||RNA-dependent RNA polymerase|
|M2-1||Transcription elongation factor|
|M2-2||Regulation of transcription/RNA replication|
|NS1||Inhibiting apoptosis and type I IFN signaling|
Table.1 RSV proteins and functions.
Based on the reactivity of the F and G surface proteins to monoclonal antibodies, RSV is divided into subgroups A and B. Within local epidemics, the subtypes tend to circulate concurrently, with subtype A being more prevalent.
RSV antibodies targeting various proteins such as G, N, F, P, M2, and others are now available from Creative Biolabs. Please contact us with your specific RSV antibody inquiry, and we will respond as soon as possible. If your desired antibody or target is not found in our catalog, please consult with our scientists about antibody discovery, engineering, and customized services. Please feel free to contact us for more details.