Fig.1 CV virion structure. (Payne, 2017)
Circoviruses are the smallest viruses known to exist, replicating autonomously in mammalian cells. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs), as members of the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family, have been linked to a variety of pig disease conditions, including porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), respiratory disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and reproductive disorders. Four PCV genotypes have been identified (PCV1-4). PCV1 is not pathogenic, but PCV2, 3, and 4 are dangerous pathogens.
PCV1 was first identified in 1974 as a contaminant of porcine kidney cell lines.
PCV2 is the primary cause of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), including postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2 has a worldwide distribution and a wide range of genotypes (A-D).
PCV-3 is also common and was discovered to exist in the 1990s. Only in cell culture has PCV3 been isolated (PK-15 cells). A few animals infected with PCV-2 may have a long-term infection.
PCV4 was discovered as a new-emerging PCV in China in 2019. PCV4 is not associated with any specific disease.
PCV is an icosahedral virus with a diameter of about 17 nm that is not enveloped. Its genome is about 1.7 kb long and is composed of covalently closed single-strand negative circular DNA. Circoviruses have an ambisense genome with two major ORFs encoded on opposite strands of the replicative dsDNA intermediate, from the rep and cap genes. The rep gene can be found on the virus sense strand, while the cap gene can be found on the complementary sense strand. The genome's intergenic region contains a putative stem-loop structure with a conserved nanonucleotide sequence motif that is linked to the origin of PCV DNA replication via the rolling-circle replication mode.
ORF1 encodes replicase proteins (Rep and Rep'), which are required for PCV genomic DNA rolling-circle replication. ORF2 encodes the major immunogenic protein, the virus structural capsid protein (Cap protein). A homopolymer icosahedral virion is formed by 60 Cap protein subunits arranged as 12 pentamer-clustered units.
Fig.1 PCV genome organization and stem-loop structure. (Nath, 2021)
Creative Biolabs provides a diverse range of high-quality antibodies that have been validated for use in multiplexed assays. To expedite your research, we have a variety of PCV antibodies that target different PCV genotypes. We also offer antibodies against other circoviruses, such as canine circovirus, pigeon circovirus, etc. If our catalog does not contain the desired antibody or target, our expert team can provide customized antibody development services such as antibody discovery, engineering, and customized services.
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