Fig.1 CDV structure. (da Costa, et al., 2021)
Canine distemper virus (CDV), also known as Canine morbillivirus, is a highly contagious disease that affects both wild and domestic Canidae. It causes a variety of symptoms affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. The first case of canine distemper was reported in the 1730s. CDV has only one serotype and numerous strains that differ in tissue tropism and pathogenicity. The introduction and widespread use of CDV vaccines in the 1950s greatly aided in keeping the disease under control. CDV remains endemic in many parts of the world, despite widespread vaccination.
CDV belongs to the Morbillivirus genus and the Paramyxoviridae family. CDV particles are pleomorphic, enveloped virions with a diameter of about 150 nm that are frequently spherical. Its genome is a 15.7 kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes six structural proteins known as nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), hemagglutinin (H), and large Polymerase (L), as well as two non-structural proteins (C and V). The F and H proteins, which are found in the lipid envelope surrounding the virion, are responsible for virus recognition and entry into the host cell. Because of their high genetic variation, the H and F genes are ideal targets for genotype identification and strain analysis. The N protein encapsulates and protects the RNA, and it is linked to the P and L proteins, which help with transcription and replication.
Fig.2 Genome organization. (Rendon-Marin, et al., 2019)
It is recognized as a multi-host pathogen on a global scale. CDV is highly susceptible to cross-species transmission among domestic and wildlife reservoir hosts, which is a significant source of emerging and endemic diseases. All animals in the Canidae, Mustelidae, and Procyonidae families are susceptible to CDV infection. Recent large outbreaks in nonhuman primates indicate that the virus has adapted to these animals and that it has the potential to infect humans. There have been no reports of CDV infecting humans.
Fig.3 Schematic representation of the possible CDV evolutionary transmission route. (Quintero-Gil, et al., 2019)
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