Canine Circovirus (CanineCV)

Creative Biolabs strives to make veterinary research easier by constantly expanding our selection of antibodies for veterinary immunology. Our expert team has extensive knowledge and experience in virology research. We can supply viroantibodies for major veterinary diseases such as African Swine Fever Virus, Canine Distemper Virus, Canine Circovirus, and others.


Circoviruses are the smallest and most basic viruses known to replicate autonomously in animal cells. There are currently 11 species of circoviruses known to affect birds and mammals, causing a variety of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Canine circovirus (CanineCV), a novel species of circovirus, was first detected in asymptomatic dogs' sera in 2012. In pigs, foxes, and dogs, it causes lethal gastroenteritis and/or vasculitis. CanineCV infection is frequently associated with co-infection with other pathogens, which can exacerbate disease symptoms in affected animals. There is no vaccine available for CanineCV. Several aspects of its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease are still unknown.

CanineCV Structure

CanineCV is a nonenveloped, icosahedral virus with a diameter of 15 to 25 nm. The viral circular single-stranded DNA is packaged by 60 capsid subunits in virions. The ambisense genome is circular and non-segmented, and it contains two major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (V1, rep gene) encodes a protein required for viral replication known as a replicase-associated protein. ORF2 (C1, cap gene) encodes viral capsid protein, the viral capsid's sole constituent. The capsid protein is involved in host immune responses. Viral replicase protein and capsid protein have 303 and 270 amino acids, respectively.

CV virion structure and genome.Fig.1 CV virion structure and genome. (Payne, 2017)

Genome Replication

CanineCV replication follows the ssDNA rolling circle model. To initiate viral genome replication, a stem-loop structure with a conserved 9 base motif in the loop, located between the 5-ends of the two main ORFs, is required. ORF1 is on the positive strand, while ORF2 is on the negative strand.

Detection & Diagnosis

Circovirus infection in dogs can cause vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhagic diarrhea, lameness, and tetraparesis. CanineCV not only infects the intestine but also the spleen, liver, kidney, and lymphoid tissue, where it replicates in macrophages and may cause immunosuppression. The virus can also be found in the respiratory discharge of dogs suffering from respiratory disease. Molecular detection methods such as PCR, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR are commonly used to diagnose viral infections (qPCR). CanineCV has no known cure, and treatment is non-specific.

Creative Biolabs is a life science industry leader that provides workflow solutions for veterinary disease research. We have a variety of Canine CV antibodies to help you with your research. To meet your needs, we offer custom antibody production on a variety of scales. We also offer customized antibody development services, such as antibody discovery, engineering, and customized services. Please do not hesitate to contact us to discuss your needs.


  1. Payne, S. Other Small DNA Viruses. Viruses. 2017, 243-246.
All products and services are intended for Research Use Only, and NOT to be used in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

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