Fig.1 BCoV structure. (Bidokhti, 2013)
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pathogen that causes respiratory and enteric infections in cattle and wild ruminants all over the world. BCoVs are widespread throughout the world, with cases reported in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and even Africa. It belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus, which is part of the Coronavirinae subfamily, the Coronaviridae family, and the order Nidovirales. All BCoV isolates are thought to be of the same serotype/genotype.
Fig.2 The overall prevalence of BCoV. (Zhu, et al., 2022)
BCoVs are positive-stranded RNA viruses with an envelope. The genome is approximately 31 kb of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA. It has 13 open reading frames (ORFs). The genome also contains the amino acid sequences for five major structural proteins: nucleoprotein (N), membrane glycoprotein (M), envelope protein (E), hemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein (HE), and spike glycoprotein (S). The S glycoprotein is cleaved into S1 (N-terminus) and S2 (C-terminus) subunits and forms large petal-shaped spikes on the surface of the virion. It is primarily responsible for coronavirus entry into susceptible cells by binding to specific cell receptors and mediating virus-cell fusion as well as subsequent cell-cell fusion during infection. HE and S proteins are functionally interdependent and have co-evolved to balance host cell attachment and release.
Fig.3 BCoV structure and its genome. (Bidokhti, 2013)
BCoVs infect cattle and wild ruminants, causing respiratory and enteric infections. BCoV is linked to three distinct clinical syndromes in cattle: (neonatal) calf diarrhea (CD), adult winter dysentery (WD), and respiratory infections in cattle of various ages. The fecal-oral route is the most common route of infection, and pregnant cows are thought to be important sources of virus for newborn calves.
Fig.4 Summary diagram of different clinical syndromes associated with BCoV. (Vlasova & Saif, 2021)
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