Fig.1 Adenovirus structure. (Singh, et al., 2019)
Adenoviruses are a type of virus that belongs to the Adenoviridae family. Bat adenoviruses (BtAdVs) are a type of Mastadenovirus that infects mammals. Bats are crucial in the evolution of adenoviruses. In 2006, the first adenovirus from a bat was isolated from a fruit-eating flying fox in Japan. BtAdVs have been isolated from a variety of bat species, with some exhibiting a broad host range in cell culture. The ICTV had previously registered eight species of BtAdVs (Bat Mastadenovirus A to H).
Fig.2 Many mammals have latent adenoviruses. (Kremer, 2021)
The Adenoviridae family has a 3.5kb double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by a non-enveloped icosahedral shell with fiber-like projections from each vertex. A total of 40 different viral polypeptides are produced, with one-third of these constituting the virion. The virion capsid is made up of major (penton, hexon, fiber) and minor (pIX, pIIIa, pVI, and pVIII) capsid proteins that play important roles in virion structure stabilization via protein-protein interactions. Proteins IX and V are genus-specific, with IX not found in the other four genera.
Fig.3 Left: The topology of the BtAdV capsid. (Hackenbrack, et al., 2017); Right: Genome organization of BtAdV-TJM. (Li, 2010)
Adenoviruses have long been thought to be host-specific viruses that evolve alongside their hosts. Bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts for emerging and re-emerging human and animal diseases. At least some BtAdVs appear to have crossed species barriers, most likely recently. Phylogenetic reconstructions have revealed a close genetic relationship between canine AdV and bat AdV, implying that interspecies transmission occurred in the past. In cell culture, BtAdVs have a wide host range. Many animal and human cell lines are susceptible to BtAdVs, indicating that they may have a broad host range.
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