Fig.1 APMV structure. (Gogoi, et al., 2007)
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) have emerged as a major threat to the global poultry industry. Avulaviruses (formerly Rubulaviruses) are members of the genus Avulavirus (formerly Rubulaviruses), the family Paramyxoviridae, and the order Mononegavirales. They have been isolated from over 200 different wild and domestic bird species all over the world. In a variety of avian hosts, 22 different APMV species have been identified. Orthoavulavirus (APMV-1, -9, -12, -13, -16 to -19, and -21), Metaavulavirus (APMV-2, -5 to -8, -10, -11, -14, -15, -20, and -22), and Paraavulavirus are the three genera (APMV-3 and -4). APMV serotypes are found all over the world. The most important pathogen of this group for poultry is Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1); however, APMV-2, -3, -6, and -7 are occasionally associated with disease in chickens and turkeys.
APMVs are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses with a lipid envelope that measure about 150 nm in diameter. The viral genomes range in size from 13 to 19 kb and encode six non-overlapping genes in the sequence 3'-N-P/V-M-F-HN-L-5'. Their viral RNA encodes six major proteins: nucleocapsid protein (NP), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), large RNA polymerase (L), and two non-structural proteins V and W. APMV-6 differs from other APMVs in that it has a small hydrophobic protein (SH) gene between the F and HN genes.
Fig.2 APMV-1 genomic organization. (Seal, et al., 2000)
Table 1. APMV Proteins & Functions
|Gene||Protein||Length of amino acids||Function|
|Structure Proteins||NP||Nucleocapsid protein||~493 aa||Protection of RNA genome, regulation of RNA synthesis|
|P||Phosphoprotein||~397 aa||Transcriptase: RNA-dependent RNA transcription|
|M||Matrix protein||~ 366 aa||Virion stability|
|F||Fusion protein||~ 545 aa||Cell fusion, virus entry, cell-cell spread, protective immunity|
|HN||Haemagglutinin-neuraminidase||~549 aa||Attachment protein, induction of neutralizing antibodies|
|L||Large RNA polymerase||~ 2,199 aa||Transcriptase: RNA-dependent RNA transcription|
|Non-structure Proteins||P||W||~ 150 aa|
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