Avian Orthoreovirus (ARV)

Avian Orthoreovirus (ARV) Antibody Products by Targets


Avian Orthoreovirus (ARV), also known as avian pneumovirus, turkey rhinotracheitis, or swollen head syndrome, primarily affects turkeys and chickens but also affects other avian species. ARV is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus, which is part of the Spinareovirinae subfamily of the Reoviridae. The virus replicates in both the respiratory and reproductive tracts. It is a major respiratory pathogen in poultry all over the world, causing an acute highly contagious upper respiratory tract infection that is sometimes associated with reproductive problems. In South Africa, the first infections were discovered in turkeys in 1978. At the moment, six subtypes (A, B, C, D, and two new subtypes) have been identified. Subgroup C is more closely related to human RV than any of the other ARV subgroups, according to sequence analysis.

Viral Genome and Proteins

ARVs are non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome surrounded by a 70-80 nm double concentric icosahedral capsid shell (inner shell and outer shell). ARV genomes are made up of ten double-stranded RNA segments that can be classified into three sizes based on electrophoretic mobility: large (L1, L2, L3), medium (M1, M2, M3), and small (S1, S2, S3, S4). The proteins encoded by the L-class genes are designated as Lambda (λ), those encoded by the M-class as mu (μ), and those encoded by the S-class as sigma (σ). Among them, ten structural proteins consist of λA, λB, λC, μA, μB, μBC, μBN, σA, σB, and σC; four nonstructural proteins consist of μNS, σNS, p17, and p10. p10 and p17 are encoded by the first two cistrons of the tricistronic ARV S1 genome segment. Proteins μBc, σB, λC, and σC are components of the outer shell; λA, λB, μA, and σA are components of the inner shell.

A schematic diagram of an orthoreovirus particle in cross-section.Fig.2 A schematic diagram of an orthoreovirus particle in cross-section. (King, et al., 2011)

Functions of AMPV Structure Proteins

Genome Protein Functions
Outer Capsid L λC λC is the viral capping enzyme.
M μBC μBC plays an important role in the internalization of avian reovirus into the host cell.
S σB σB carries group-specific neutralizing epitopes and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis.
S σC σC is an attachment protein and an apoptosis inducer.
Inner Capsid L λA λA is associated with scaffolding.
S σA σA is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein and has anti-interferon activity.
M μA μA protein may be a co-factor for transcriptases.
L λB λB is associated with transcription.

Creative Biolabs is a leading viroantibody supplier and developer. With a focus on veterinary research, we now offer a variety of ARV antibodies targeting various proteins to help our clients achieve their goals. We can provide custom antibody and development services based on our antibody platform, including antibody discovery, engineering, and customized services. If you require any additional information, please do not hesitate to contact us.


  1. Benavente, J.; Martínez-Costas, J. Avian reovirus: structure and biology. Virus research. 2007, 123(2): 105-119.
  2. King, A.M.; et al. Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier. 2011.
All products and services are intended for Research Use Only, and NOT to be used in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

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