Creative Biolabs has extensive expertise in the development of antibodies. All our ViroAntibody products listed in one place for easy searching and find the correct product faster and easier.
Immunity to viral infection is caused by a variety of specific and nonspecific mechanisms. When the immune system recognizes a pathogen, one of its most important responses is releasing something called antibodies. Virus and/or virus-infected cells can stimulate B lymphocytes to produce antibodies (specific for viral antigens) that fight off invaders and keep us healthy. Everyone has more than 10 billion different kinds of antibodies.
Antibodies serve as critical barriers to viral infection. At the tips of antibodies are the unique sites where they bind with a matching site on antigens and destroy them. After binding to antigens on the pathogen, antibodies can diminish viral dissemination by direct action involving both their antigen-binding activity and the effector functions borne by their Fc fragment. Antibodies are efficiently recognized by both the complement and the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) borne by many cells of the immune system.
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection represents a paradoxical phenomenon in host-pathogen biology, in which, antibody, an important pillar of the host defense against invading pathogen, actually allows entry of the pathogen into host territory. Suboptimal neutralizing or non-neutralizing cross-reactive antibodies bind to viruses and facilitate FcγRs or complement receptor-mediated enhanced entry into host cells, followed by its replication, and thus increasing the cellular viral load. ADE is a major obstacle in vaccine development.
Fig.2 Mechanisms of ADE of viral infections. (Smatti, 2018)
The role of antibodies in preventing virus infection and reinfection is unquestionable. Antibodies have several mechanisms to prevent infections. They can either neutralize viruses directly to prohibit their entry into the host cell, or they can crowd around a virus to increase its visibility to other immune cells. Once bound to a virus, antibodies can also tag the virus for phagocytes, which in turn ingest and destroy the pathogen. Antibodies fight viruses in different ways as follows:
Fig.3 The antiviral activities of antibodies. (Burton, 2001)
Creative Biolabs has extensive expertise in the development of antibodies. All our ViroAntibody products listed in one place for easy searching and find the correct product faster and easier. There are both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, primary antibodies and secondary antibodies, labeled antibodies and unlabeled antibodies. If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.