Coxsackieviruses, the leading causes of aseptic meningitis, are a few related enteroviruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family of non-enveloped, linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Coxsackieviruses are divided into group A and group B viruses based on early observations of their pathogenicity in neonatal mice. Group A coxsackieviruses (CVA) were noted to cause a flaccid paralysis while group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) were noted to cause a spastic paralysis. At least 23 serotypes (1-22, 24) of CVA and six serotypes (1-6) of CVB are recognized. The most studied serotypes are CVB3, CVA6, and CVA16.


CVB3 has been long identified as one of the leading causes of viral myocarditis, a condition that may proceed to acute as well as chronic heart failure. Current evidence supports a proviral function for autophagy in CVB3 infection by promoting the formation of cellular autophagosome without promoting bulk protein degradation by the lysosomes. CVA6 is an emerging pathogen associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD associated with CVA6 may have an atypical skin presentation with facial involvement and vesiculobullous lesions on the body. Its genetic characterization and pathogenic properties are largely unknown. CVA16 is also one of the major pathogens associated with HFMD in infants and young children. Studies have shown that co-infection with CVA16 and human enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause serious complications in the central nervous system (CNS) and increase the chance of genetic recombination.

The CVB3 lifecycle.Fig.1 The CVB3 lifecycle. (Garmaroudi, 2015)

Serological diagnosis is the routine method of detecting enteroviruses, which includes neutralizing antibody detection and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For instance, a neutralization assay based on the inhibition of cytopathic effects has been widely employed to measure the titers of neutralizing antibodies against CVA16. ELISA for CVA16 is rapid and convenient for testing large numbers of specimens. According to these detecting methods, Creative Biolabs currently offers neutralizing antibodies and antibodies applied in ELISA for CVA16 for the rapid and convenient serological diagnosis.

Anti-Coxsackievirus Antibodies

Recently, anti-viral antibody generation technology is undergoing rapid development. Anti-coxsackievirus antibodies have been extensively used as important elements in diagnostic assays for disease screening and researches. With years of experience and professional scientists, Creative Biolabs provides high-quality antibody development services targeting different proteins against different serotypes of coxsackieviruses for our global clients. For instance, ready-to-use catalogue is available for VP1/VP2/VP3 against CVB3/CVA6/CVA16. Customized antibody development services are also available. Our high-affinity antibodies will contribute greatly to the success of your projects. Creative Biolabs also offers a full comprehensive suite of secondary antibodies and isotype controls to meet your needs. Please contact us for more information.


  1. Garmaroudi, F. S.; et al. Coxsackievirus B3 replication and pathogenesis. Future microbiology. 2015, 10(4): 629-653.
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