Yellow Fever Virus

Antibodies (by target):

Yellow Fever Virus Antibody Products by Targets

YFV genome organization.Fig.1 YFV genome organization.

Yellow Fever Virus replication cycle.Fig.2 Yellow Fever Virus replication cycle.

Introduction of YFV

Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) is an enveloped virus that contains a single stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of about 11,000 nucleotides. YFV belongs to the genus Flavivirus and is transmitted by mosquitoes. A single open reading frame encodes for a large polyprotein which is finally processed into ten viral proteins: three structural proteins, capsid protein (C), precursor to the membrane protein M (prM), envelope protein (E) and seven non-structural proteins (NS), NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5. YFV binds in a non-specific manner to glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate on the surface of host cells such as hepatocytes or dendritic cells (DCs).

Function of Viral Proteins

  • C - Plays a role in virus budding by binding to the cell membrane. Gather the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle.
  • prM - Acts as a chaperone for protein E during intracellular virion assembly by masking and inactivating protein E fusion peptide.
  • E - Binds to host cell surface receptor and mediates fusion between viral and cellular membranes.
  • NS1 - Involved in immune evasion, pathogenesis and viral replication.
  • NS2A - Component of the viral RNA replication complex that functions in virion assembly and antagonizes the host immune response
  • NS2B - Required cofactor for the serine protease function of NS3.
  • NS3 - Displays three enzymatic activities: serine protease, NTPase and RNA helicase.
  • NS4A - Regulates the ATPase activity of the NS3 helicase activity. NS4A allows NS3 helicase to conserve energy during unwinding.
  • NS4B - Induces the formation of ER-derived membrane vesicles where the viral replication takes place.
  • NS5 - Plays role in RNA genome replication. Prevents the establishment of cellular antiviral state by blocking the interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) signaling pathway.

Yellow Fever Disease

Yellow fever (YF), caused by YFV, has historically been considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. YF is mainly characterized by a period of flu-like symptoms that can become more severe. As no treatment for YF is available, mass vaccination campaigns with the highly potent, live-attenuated YFV vaccine, termed YFV-17D, are currently the only weapon to fight the disease and prevent future outbreaks.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of YF is complicated by the fact that early symptoms of the infection can be confused with other haemorrhagic diseases including Dengue, Ebola and Zika. Therefore, differential diagnosis is an important consideration in areas where other flaviviruses such as Dengue and Zika co-circulate. Blood tests (RT-PCR) can sometimes detect the virus in the early stages of the disease. In later stages of the disease, testing to identify antibodies is needed, such as plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Generally, IgM antibodies appear during the first week of illness. The detection of IgM antibody by ELISA capture in a single sample provides a presumptive diagnosis, with confirmation by a fourfold or greater rise in titer of neutralizing antibody between acute phase and convalescent phase serum samples.

What Creative Biolabs offers?

As a leader of recombinant antibody (rAb) discovery, engineering and manufacturing, Creative Biolabs provides high quality service to customers in academic and industry fields all over the world. We now provide a variety of YFV antibody products targeting the above viral proteins. Customized antibody development services and antibody related virology assays are also available for you. Please submit your specific inquiry to us. Creative Biolabs also provides a full comprehensive suite of secondary antibodies and isotype controls to meet your needs. Learn more about our ViroAntibody Discovery Services. For any questions, please feel free to contact us for more information.


Reference

  1. Douam, F.; Ploss, A. Yellow fever virus: knowledge gaps impeding the fight against an old foe. Trends in microbiology. 2018, 26(11): 913-928.
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