Rhinovirus (RV)


Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are respiratory viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae and genus Enterovirus. HRV is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Besides the common cold, rhinovirus infections are often linked to acute otitis media and rhinosinusitis, which also frequently coincide with bacterial coinfection. Rhinoviruses are capable of remaining infectious on surfaces outside of hosts for hours resulting in a high potential for spread between infected and uninfected individuals.

HRV Structure and Biology

Three species of rhinovirus are currently known: HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C. HRV is a non-enveloped virus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA of approximately 7.2 kb that encodes 11 proteins. The RNA genome encodes a single polyprotein that is proteolytically processed by viral proteases into structural and non-structural proteins. Most important, the viral capsid of HRV is comprised of four viral proteins (VPs), VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. The remaining viral proteins are responsible for viral replication and subsequent assembly. Antigenic variation among HRV types is derived from variations in the exposed surface of VP1, VP2, and VP3, while embedded VP4 is responsible for RNA packaging during assembly. The capsid proteins exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity resulting in a wide range of antigenic diversity.

HRV genomic organization, virion structure, and species.Fig.1 HRV genomic organization, virion structure, and species. (Stobart, 2017)

Popular Targets

  • Capsid Protein VP1

Capsid protein VP1 interacts with host cell receptor to provide virion attachment to target host cells. After binding to its receptor, the capsid undergoes conformational changes. Capsid protein VP1 N-terminus and capsid protein VP4 are externalized. Together, they shape a pore in the host membrane through which viral genome is translocated to host cell cytoplasm.

  • Capsid Protein VP2

Capsid protein VP2 forms an icosahedral capsid of pseudo T=3 symmetry with capsid proteins VP2 and VP3.

  • Capsid Protein VP3

Capsid protein VP3 forms an icosahedral capsid of pseudo T=3 symmetry with capsid proteins VP2 and VP3.

  • Capsid Protein VP4

Capsid protein VP4 lies on the inner surface of the capsid shell.

  • Protease 2A

Protease 2A cleaves viral polyprotein and specific host proteins.

  • Protease 3C

Protease 3C is major viral protease that mediates proteolytic processing of the polyprotein.

  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase

RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) replicates the viral genomic RNA on the surface of intracellular membranes.

Anti-Rhinovirus Antibodies Services

Antibodies are a major defense against infection with the epitopes lying on the exterior regions of VP1-VP3. Creative Biolabs provides ready-to-use catalogue as well as customized antibody development services against various targets involved in rhinovirus. These anti-rhinovirus antibodies are available for research in infectious disease. Visit the antibody supply page for further details, including target antigen, tested applications, and more. Our high-affinity antibodies will contribute greatly to the success of your projects. A full comprehensive suite of primary antibodies, secondary antibodies and isotype controls are supplied to meet your needs. If you are interested in our products or services, please contact us for more information.


  • Stobart, C. C.; et al. Rhinovirus biology, antigenic diversity, and advancements in the design of a human rhinovirus vaccine. Frontiers in microbiology. 2017, 8: 2412.
All products and services are intended for Research Use Only, and NOT to be used in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

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