The Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic infection. It is a member of the Henipavirus genus (family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales). It belongs to the same genus as Nipah virus, another zoonotic pathogen. HeV is genetically and antigenically related to Nipah virus, with which it shares more than 90% amino acid homology. HeV was discovered during the first recorded outbreak of the disease in 1994 in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. HeV infections in horses and humans have occurred in Australia since then. The flying fox (fruit bat) is the natural host for HeV, but they do not show any symptoms of illness when infected. HeV can occasionally be transmitted from flying foxes to horses. It causes fatal acute respiratory and/or neurologic symptoms, which usually result in death. People and dogs have been infected as a result of close contact with clinically infected horses on rare occasions.
HeV virion is an enveloped, spherical-to-filamentous virus with a diameter of 40-600 nm and a length of 1900 nm. HeV genomes are 18.2 kb in size and are non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA. Six structural proteins are encoded by the genome: fusion protein (F), attachment protein (G), matrix protein (M), nucleocapsid protein (N), large protein (L), and phosphoprotein (P). G and F glycoproteins, two membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins, mediate viral attachment and fusion to the host cell. P and L proteins aid in the transcription of the viral genome. Nonstructural proteins encoded by HeV P genes include V protein, W protein, and C protein. The P, V, W, and C proteins have been shown to inhibit the immune host response and act as virulence factors.
Fig.2 Major structural features of the Hendra virion and its genome. (Hazelton, et al., 2013)
It is believed the virus can be transmitted from:
There is no evidence of human-to-human, human-to-horse, or human-to-horse transmission.
Fig.3 Transmission of HeV. (Khusro, et al., 2020)
Creative Biolabs is pleased to offer comprehensive, high-quality antibodies for all veterinary species. We now offer a variety of anti-HeV antibodies that target various proteins (eg. F protein, G protein, etc.). All antibodies have been validated in a variety of research applications and with samples derived from a variety of different species. Please contact us for more information, a quote, or to set up a teleconference.
To begin your research, browse our entire catalog of HeV antibodies.