Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV)

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Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease caused by the equine arteritis virus that affects horses and other equine species (EAV). The host range may include alpacas and llamas. EAV was first isolated in the United States in 1953 during an outbreak of respiratory disease and abortion. Since then, EAV infection has been discovered in horse populations throughout the world. While the virus is known to infect a wide range of horse breeds, the rate of infection varies greatly. There has been no evidence of infection in wild horse populations to date. During the acute phase of an infection, virus transmission occurs primarily through the respiratory, venereal, congenital, or indirect routes. In most cases, equine viral arteritis infection is asymptomatic. Even if there are no clinical symptoms, the infection can still be transmitted. EAV can cause abortion in pregnant mares and establish a long-term carrier state in breeding stallions, but it is not usually fatal to otherwise healthy adult horses.

Transmission and outcome of EAV infection in equine populations.Fig.1 Transmission and outcome of EAV infection in equine populations. (Balasuriya, et al., 2018)

EAV Structure

EAV belongs to the Arteriviridae family and the genus Arterivirus. The enveloped, spherical EAV virion is 50nm to 65nm in size, with an isometric core surrounded by a lipid-containing envelope from which delicate spikes protrude. Large surface projections are missing from the envelope. The EAV genome I is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA that is approximately 12.7 kb long and contains a 5' leader sequence as well as nine open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1a and 1b encode two replicase polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab), which are processed into at least 13 nonstructural proteins (nsp1-12, including nsp7 a/b). The envelope proteins E, GP2, GP3, GP4, ORF5a protein, GP5, and M (encoded by ORFs 2a, 2b, 3-4, 5a, 5b, and 6, respectively) and a nucleocapsid protein are among the structural proteins of EAV (N, encoded by ORF7). GP5 and M combine to form a dimer, and GP2, GP3, and GP4 combine to form a trimer.

EAV particle and Genome organization.Fig.2 EAV particle and Genome organization. (Balasuriya, et al., 2013)


EVA can be difficult to diagnose because it resembles several other equine diseases clinically. Laboratory testing is the only sure way to diagnose EVA. Serum neutralization, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays, immunofluorescence, and immuno-histochemistry can all be used to confirm the virus's identity. Most laboratories around the world use the neutralization test as the primary serological assay to detect evidence of EAV infection.

Antibodies to EAV

Creative Biolabs is a market leader in antibody production services. We provide antibodies to customers all over the world who are conducting research on veterinary immune systems. Our anti-EAV antibodies for hot targets will aid our clients' discovery efforts. We also provide custom antibody and development services if the ready-to-use catalog is not available. Please contact us for more information.

To begin your research, browse our entire catalog of EAV antibodies.


  1. Balasuriya, U.B.R.; et al. Equine arteritis virus. Veterinary Microbiology. 2013, 167(1-2): 93-122.
  2. Balasuriya, U.B.R.; et al. Equine viral arteritis: A respiratory and reproductive disease of significant economic importance to the equine industry. Equine Veterinary Education. 2018, 30(9): 497-512.
All products and services are intended for Research Use Only, and NOT to be used in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

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