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Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a zoonotic viral disease carried by birds and transmitted by mosquitos. The disease is not transmitted directly between mammals, but rather through the bite of an infected mosquito. Humans and horses are the most commonly affected mammals by clinical diseases. Pigs, rodents, and white-tailed deer have also become ill as a result of EEE. EEEV infection can cause encephalitis and even death in most susceptible animals. Emus and other related bird species do not get encephalitis; instead, they get severe stomach and intestine bleeding. After an investigation into sick horses in Venezuela, VEEV was discovered in equines (horses, donkeys, and mules) in 1936. Infection with VEEV in humans was first reported in the 1960s. Only a few cases of EEEV infection in humans have been reported.
Fig.1 Enzootic and epizootic/epidemic transmission cycles of EEEV. (Go, et al. 2014)
The EEEV is a member of the Togaviridae family's genus Alphavirus. The EEEV is an enveloped, spherical virus with a diameter of 60-70nm. The genome is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA that is about 11.7 kb long. The genome contains four non-structural proteins (nsP1-nsP4) and five structural proteins (nsP1-nsP5) (capsid, E1, E2, E3, and 6K). The icosahedral shell is made up of an outer layer of transmembrane envelope E1 and E2 proteins, separated by a host-derived membrane, and an inner capsid layer. During viral entry, envelope proteins are involved in receptor recognition, virus attachment, penetration, and membrane fusion. The nsP1-nsP4 proteins are in charge of viral replication and viral packaging into infectious virions.
Fig.2 Cryo-EM structure of EEEV (Chen, et al., 2020); and Genome organization (Holmes, et al., 2020).
It's difficult to isolate EEEV from clinical samples. Serologic testing is still the most common way to diagnose EEEV infection. The presence of IgM antibodies against the virus in serum or cerebral spinal fluid is usually used to make a diagnosis (CSF).
Creative Biolabs provides antibodies to customers worldwide for veterinary immune system research. Our scientists use their expertise to create high-performance antibodies in a timely manner. We provide anti-EEEV antibodies for hot targets to help you progress with your research. We also provide the highest standards of excellence for custom monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, as well as personal service, for special EEEV antibodies. Please contact us for more information.
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