Fig.1 Coronavirus structure. (Parkhe & Verma, 2019)
Coronavirus has resurfaced in the news as a result of COVID-19 outbreaks around the world. Coronaviruses have a high zoonotic potential, and their ability to cross species boundaries is due to both mutation and the virus's proclivity to recombine. Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread in the dog population and causes a highly contagious intestinal disease, as well as fatal cases, worldwide. CCoV was first discovered in 1971.
CCoV is a member of the Coronaviridae family's Alphacoronavirus genus. CCoV is a membrane-enveloped virus with a positive RNA genome that is linear and single-stranded. Coronavirus particles are made up of four major structural proteins: the spike (S), the envelope (E), the membrane (M), and the nucleocapsid (N) (N). The CCoV genome is approximately 30 kb long and contains 7-10 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1a and ORF1b are two large overlapping ORFs that cover two-thirds of the genome and encode two replicase polyproteins that are the precursors of both the viral replicase-Rep and proteases. The remaining three-thirds of the genome encodes four structural proteins as well as a variety of non-structural proteins with unknown functions.
There are two types of canine coronaviruses: canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) (CRCoV). Both are members of the Coronaviridae family, with CCoV being an alphacoronavirus and CRCoV being a betacoronavirus. Based on random point mutations and recombination associated with the S protein, and distinct serological properties, the CCoV is divided into two distinct serotypes (CCoV I and CCoV II). The CCoV II viruses are further classified as CCoV IIa and CCoV IIb based on the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region of the S protein.
Fig.2 Genome organization of CCoV I, CCoV II, and CRCoV. (El Wahed & Truyen, 2021)
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