Fig.1 A retrovirus particle structure. (Rodrigues, et al., 2011)
Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a pathogenic avian gammaretrovirus that infects a variety of fowl species globally. Infection causes a variety of disease syndromes such as anemia, immunosuppression, neoplasia, runting, and feathering abnormalities known as "nakanuke." Avian REV belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily, and the genus Gammaretrovirus. REV-T, reticuloendotheliosis-associated virus (REV-A), duck infectious anemia virus (DIAV), Trager duck spleen necrosis virus (TDSNV), and chick syncytial virus are all members of the REV family (CSV). Regarding REV's zoonotic potential, it has been demonstrated that the virus shares some evolutionary lineage with mammalian retroviruses, but the virus's ability to infect humans is negligible.
REV virions have a diameter of 100 nm and are spherical and enveloped viruses. The REV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA with three open reading frames (ORFs) that encode the gag group-specific antigen (gag), polymerase (pol), and envelope (env) genes, as well as a long terminal repeat (LTR). The non-defective REV-A genome is 9 kb long, whereas the defective REV-T genome is only 5.7 kb long due to deletions in portions of the gag, pol, and env genes. In REV-T, the env sequences have been almost entirely replaced by the v-rel oncogene.
Fig.2 The genomic structure of REV. (Woźniakowski, et al., 2018)
The envelope glycoprotein is encoded by the env gene, which is cleaved into surface protein (SU, gp90) and transmembrane glycoproteins proteins (TM, gp20). The gag gene code for four structural proteins: matrix (MA), p18, capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid domain (NC) (NC). The protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase enzymes are encoded by the pol gene (IN). The main immunogenic protein is SU, which stimulates the body to produce neutralizing antibodies.
Table 1. REV Proteins & Functions
|Env||Surface protein (SU, gp90)||Viral particle attachment and the penetration of host cells.|
|Transmembrane glycoproteins proteins (TM, gp20)|
|Gag||Matrix protein (MA)||Viral particle assembly and encapsidation.|
|Capsid Protein (CA)|
|Nucleocapsid domain (NC)|
|Pol||Protease||Integration of viral genome into the chromosome of host cells; Viral replication.|
|Reverse transcriptase (RT)|
Creative Biolabs is dedicated to providing a wide range of antibodies for veterinary and animal research. Our technical personnel have decades of combined experience in immunology, molecular biology, and virology. We now offer a variety of REV antibodies to help our clients achieve their goals. The antibodies have been validated for immunohistochemistry, western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, and flow cytometry. We also provide custom antibody and development services on a variety of scales to meet your needs. Please contact us for more information, a quote, or to set up a teleconference.