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Papillomaviruses (PV) are a diverse group of small, non-enveloped dsDNA viruses. The structurally conserved circular genome comprises approximately 8,000 bp and is organized in several, partially overlapping open reading frames (ORF). They include the major genes that are present in all PV, namely the early genes E1 and E2 as well as the late genes L1 and L2. Early proteins are involved in viral replication, life cycle, and regulation of viral gene expression, while the late proteins assemble the viral capsid. Besides the major ORF, additional early genes such as E4 and the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are present in many PV, and E5 is encoded in, for example, genital Alpha-PV types. So far, different animal models have been used to examine PV induced tumors in natural occurring lesions of cattle, horse, dog, rabbit, and the multimammate rat.

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